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Biomedical Publishing

NIH Public Access Policy

Guidelines by Study Type

EQUATOR Network: A one-stop shop for up to date versions of many of the guidelines listed below, as well as toolkits and courses on writing, publishing, and peer reviewing guidelines


Randomized Trials: When writing up the results of randomized trials, follow the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines. The CONSORT Statement is recognized and accepted by medical journals and many editorial organizations.

Observational Studies: Observational studies should be written with the STROBE (STrengthening Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines in mind. STROBE is referred to in the Uniform Requirements for the Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

Systematic Reviews: When writing a systematic review, refer to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, an evidence-based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Case Reports: Refer to the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines when preparing a Case Report publication.

Qualitative Research: When reporting qualitative research, refer to the SRQR (Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research) and COREQ (Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research) guidelines.

Diagnostic/ Prognostic Studies: When reporting on diagnostic/ prognostic studies, consult the STARD (STAndards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy) for reporting studies of diagnostic accuracy and the TRIPOD (Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis) guidelines for studies that develop, validate, or update a prediction model.

Quality Improvement Studies: When reporting on diagnostic/ prognostic studies, consult the SQUIRE (Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence) guidelines, which provide a framework for reporting new knowledge about improving the quality, safety, and value of healthcare healthcare.

Economic Evaluations: Writers of economic evaluations and health interventions should consult the CHEERS (Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards) guidelines and checklist.

Animal Pre-Clinical Studies: Consult the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) guidelines when reporting on animal pre-clinical studies, wich aim to improve the reporting of research using animals while maximizing information published and minimizing unnecessary studies.

Study Protocols: When reporting study protocols, consult the SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) and PRISMA-P (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols) guidelines.