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A Dictionary of Geography defines a Geographic Information System (GIS) as an integrated, spatial, data-handling programmes which will collect, store, and retrieve spatial data from the real world. They are powerful tools in decision-making, as they can incorporate coordinated data. GIS only contain selected data—the properties which investigators have considered relevant—so that many variables will not be fed into the systems. Miller ( 2007 Geog. Compass 1, 3) calls for a people-based GIS, built on classic time geography, calculating entities and relationships between transport networks, at high resolution and in virtual space. See C. P. Lo and A. Yeung ( 2007 ) on GIS and spatial problem-solving.
"Geographic information systems." A Dictionary of Geography. Susan Mayhew. Oxford University Press 2009 Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Dartmouth College. 2 December 2011 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t15.e1356>