The Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), based in Fairbanks, Alaska, was formed in 1988 as a nonprofit member consortium of educational and scientific institutions that have a substantial commitment to arctic research.
The Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) strives for excellence in research, education, and outreach related to Earth System Science and Global Change in high-latitude, alpine, and other environments.
The Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) develops scientific knowledge of physical and biogeochemical environmental processes at local, regional and global scales, and applies this knowledge to improve society's awareness and understanding of natural and anthropogenic environmental change.
The Arctic Research Policy Act of 1984 established USARC. Its principal duties are to develop and recommend an integrated national Arctic research policy and to assist in establishing a national Arctic research program plan to implement the policy.
The program has several goals:
- to understand the Antarctic and its associated ecosystems;
- to understand the region's effects on, and responses to, global processes such as climate;
- to use Antarctica's unique features for scientific research that cannot be done as well elsewhere.
The Ottawa Declaration of 1996 formally established the Arctic Council as a high level intergovernmental forum to provide a means for promoting cooperation, coordination and interaction among the Arctic States, with the involvement of the Arctic Indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants on common Arctic issues, in particular issues of sustainable development and environmental protection in the Arctic.
Arctic Council Member States are Canada, Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden, and the United States.
The Council site also includes a section of maps of the region.
IARC's mission is to foster Arctic research in an international setting to help the nation and the international community understand, prepare for, and adapt to the pan-Arctic impacts of climate change.
SCAR, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, is a committee of ICSU , the International Council for Science, and it is charged with the initiation, promotion and co-ordination of scientific research in Antarctica. SCAR also provides international, independent scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty system.
Their members share resources, facilities, and expertise to build post-secondary education programs that are relevant and accessible to northern students. Their overall goal is to create a strong, sustainable circumpolar region by empowering northerners and northern communities through education and shared knowledge.