A genre characterized by stories involving conflicts between science and technology, human nature, and social organization in futuristic or fantastical worlds, created in cinema through distinctive iconographies, images, and sounds often produced by means of special effects technology. All the technologies of cinematic illusion are displayed at their most cutting-edge state in science-fiction films, and this has been true since the earliest years of cinema, when trick films like Une voyage dans la lune/A Trip to the Moon (Georges Méliès, France, 1902) used stop-frame animation and other effects to create what is in all probability cinema's first-ever portrayal of space travel: in topic, techniques, and iconography, Une voyage dans la lune was a prototype for the science-fiction cinema to come. The 1920s and 1930s saw portrayals of future and imagined worlds, many of them dystopic, in feature films such as Aelita/Aelita: Queen of Mars (Yakov Protazanov, USSR, 1924); Metropolis (Fritz Lang, Germany, 1927); and Things to Come (William Cameron Menzies, UK, 1936) while many post-World War II science-fiction films offered apocalyptic imaginings of alien invasion and nuclear holocaust.
Kuhn, A. and Westwell, G. (2012). "Science fiction." In A Dictionary of Film Studies. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 16 Jan. 2017
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